Past Exhibits at the American Independence Museum
Global Perspectives on the American Revolution
The American Revolution fell at a unique time in world history. A revolution was happening in philosophy, politics, and science, an era now known as the Enlightenment. Reason, liberty, religious tolerance, and constitutional government were at the forefront of scholarly thought. Enlightenment thinking threatened the established monarchies in Europe, many of whom were interconnected through marriage, alliances, and trade deals. The Enlightenment’s focus on intellectual thought and global growth allowed the American Revolution to impact countries both active and neutral during the war. Some European monarchs feared the spread of independence and some feared economic troubles. Others saw the American Revolution as an opportunity for their country. Citizens around the globe were similarly affected. Some saw hope in America’s fight for independence while others were affected by economic changes in trade.
France and Spain saw opportunities to regain land lost during the French and Indian War. The Germanic States tried to stay neutral; the largest Germanic States were on unfriendly terms with England or in alliances with countries like Spain and France. Russia was affected by encroachment on shipping regulations by England and illegal raids of Russian ships while other countries in Asia and Scandinavia were impacted by global changes in trade.
Shoemaking was a different process in Colonial times than it is today. Shoemakers, called cordwainers, held a special importance to the colonists, who faced rugged and wild conditions compared to England, and arrived fairly early in Colonial America. Shoe use to be made by hand. A store would have a selection of ready-made shoes, but the cordwainer would have to make these or custom shoes in specific styles and materials. The cordwainer could also make what was known as a last (model) of a customers foot, which would be stored in the event of future purchases. Come and learn what else was different in the colonial shoe making process!
This exhibit was researched and created by Heather Kenny, one of our interns for the 2016 Summer Internship Program.
Propaganda: From the Revolution to the Present
George Washington and the Society of the Cincinnati
Just like Cincinnatus, Washington was a successful farmer, military officer, and statesman. This motivated his peers to identify him with Cincinnatus a Roman general whose story was resurrected during the Revolution as the standard for the virtuous republican citizen. This exhibit examines the strong parallels between Washington and Cincinnatus and Washington’s controversial involvement with the Society.
African Americans in the American Revolution
In 1776, America declared its independence, evoking the sentiments of “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” The language espoused by Thomas Jefferson rallied many to the Patriot cause, whilst others sought to retain their connections to the British Crown. For many enslaved blacks, the war seemed a real opportunity to gain freedom and equality. In the end, a larger number of blacks chose to fight for the British, having been promised immediate emancipation for doing so. On the other hand, the new American government and its seemingly democratic, egalitarian values appeared promising to those hoping to witness the end of slavery. In both instances, blacks fought and bled alongside their white comrades, often without being granted the recognition or rewards that they deserved. Further, despite their heroism and shared experiences with whites, history has not always been kind to the memory of black Revolutionaries.
The legacy of the Revolution for many African Americans, slave and free, was that the rhetoric of freedom and equality espoused by the founding fathers solidified racism and strengthened the institution of slavery. This exhibition therefore intends to explore these issues, with a hope that it can be done through the eyes of specific African American slaves and freedmen, Patriot and Loyalists, and from local African Americans in the Exeter area.
The Currency of Colonial America: A Struggle for Economic Independence
At the start of the American Revolution, the Colonies, as well as Congress, began printing their own money, made out of cloth and recycled rags, to pay for military expenses and to facilitate economic activity. This resulted in an array of different types and styles of paper currency. But complications arose during and after the Revolutionary War, focusing on the inability to legitimize their currency within their own states, and abroad as a young nation.
Bloody Work: Medicine in the 18th Century
For people of the 18th C., God was involved in all aspects of life, including their health. In New England especially, Puritan roots had taught generations of people that God alone determined who became unwell and who did not. People who fell ill with disease or injury were believed to be sinful and were being punished for this reason. Further, for many in the earlier part of the century, the spread of disease and illness (as well as environmental disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes, and poor harvests) were signs of loosening piety and demonstrated the need for strengthened devotion to God. In order to receive mercy and therefore recover, the ill would need to repent for their sins. For this reason, many people turned to local ministers in times of ill health to take care of their souls, and therefore their bodies.
George Washington and Epidemic Disease in the Continental Army
One of the biggest threats to the lives of soldiers in the Revolution was the spread of epidemic disease such as smallpox. Standards of hygiene in barracks and medical facilities were often poor, causing the deaths of thousands within relatively short periods of time. Though little was known about exactly how disease was spread, many doctors did recognize the need to isolate the infected from other patients, and attempts were made to prevent its advancements. In 1777, smallpox and other diseases threatened to alter the outcome of the war. In a bid to prevent an attack of smallpox amongst his encamped soldiers at Morristown, General George Washington ordered the immediate inoculation and quarantine of all of his troops who had not yet been infected. This action by Washington is largely believed to have saved the Continental Army from near eradication by smallpox.
Surgeons at War
Although larger ‘General Hospitals’ existed for the treatment of the Continental Army, injured and ill soldiers on the front lines would be treated in ‘Flying Hospitals’. These were mobile hospitals run by Regimental Surgeons, their apprentices and sometimes camp followers with medical experience. Often set only a matter of miles away from the theatre of conflict, these units moved with the army. When the battle had ended, doctors, their apprentices and able -bodied soldiers would remove the injured by stretcher or horseback to the movable hospital unit. In such places infection and disease were rife, causing the death of the majority of injured soldiers. Aside from disease, penetrating wounds such as those sustained by bayonets were thought to be the most fatal, usually causing hemorrhages, infection or gangrene.
“All my Wareing apparill:” Production, Consumption, and the Culture of Women’s Clothing in Revolutionary Exeter
As a seaport, Exeter was linked to networks of trade which provided its residents access to goods from all over the world. Using the credits she might accumulate with a local storekeeper as a producer, a woman in Revolutionary Exeter would also become a consumer, purchasing ready-made pieces–such as silver buttons–and imported cloth. American dependency on and attachment to British wares is revealed by their difficulty in enforcing non-importation agreements and by the speed with which they gave up wartime homespun.
New Hampshire’s Founding Fathers
The first overt action of the American Revolution happened at Fort William and Mary in Newcastle, New Hampshire under the leadership of John Langdon of Portsmouth and John Sullivan of Durham. Langdon and Sullivan led a successful raid on the British garrison at Newcastle which resulted in the colonials gaining much needed gun powder and weapons, which would be later used at the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Men like John Stark, Joseph Cilley, Henry Dearborn, John Sullivan and others played important roles in the Battles of Bunker Hill, Trenton, Princeton, Bennington and Saratoga, as well as during the Siege of Boston. If it was not for men from New Hampshire who fought at Bennington and the two battles at Saratoga the war may have turned out differently. New Hampshire men prevented the British from cutting New England off from the rest of the colonies and the victory at Saratoga encouraged the French to assist the Americans in the war effort. New Hampshire men served with distinction throughout the war and also played an important part in the creation of the new nation following the signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the Revolution.